However, the practical unification of germany was achieved between 1864-1871 by prince otto von bismarck bismarck was a prussian junker (landlord) born in 1815, in an aristocratic family at brudenburg. Politically, everyone was more-or-less ok with it since original unification efforts hinged on prussia's economic and military might this would solidify the place of prussia as an integral part of the german empire, but the term prussian is mostly superfluous after 1871. The unification of the many german states into the german empire (1871-1918) followed prussian-led victories over denmark in 1864, austria in 1866, and france in 1870-71 prussia's aggressive policies were masterminded by otto von bismarck , who became united germany's first chancellor. To what extent was bismarck responsible for the unification of germany in 1871 and account for the effect this had on the balance of power in europe, any threats faced due to this imbalance and how bismarck countered these threats. Ga craig sees the reform of the army as a great importance in creating a united germany, that german unification was born out of military success since the strength of the prussian army defeated the countries standing in the way of unification, austria and france.
Revolution, restoration, and unification the french revolutionary period when french troops invaded italy in the spring of 1796, they found fertile ground for the revolutionary ideas and practices of their native country. Prussia, under bismarck's influence, had overcome austria's active resistance to the idea of a unified germany through military victory, but however much this policy lessened austria's influence over the german states, it also splintered the spirit of pan-german unity: most of the german states resented prussian power politics. After 1850, nationalism became a real political force motivating practical policies as it pushed peoples to national unification and the creation of nation states, in the process tearing multi-national empires apart and even precipitating civil war. After the war, and as the treaty of versailles made so painfully clear, germany and austria-hungary were held primarily responsible for starting the four-year conflict, one that resulted in the.
Before the unification there had been a spongy mass of nations in the middle of europe capable of absorbing, to a certain extent, the tension between the powers as well as providing means of negotiation and face-to-face meetings. Under the guidance of bismarck, the prussian chancellor, the unification of a kleindeutsch (small germany) took place in 1871 after prussia defeated france there is often historical debate over who was responsible for the unification of germany. Germany from 1871 to 1918 the german empire, 1871-1914 the german empire was founded on january 18, 1871, in the aftermath of three successful wars by the north german state of prussia. German unification past paper questions june 2012 f2 - the unification of germany, 1848-90 either 3 to what extent was the failure of the frankfurt assembly mainly due to its lack of. Religious and economic differences combined with suspicion about prussia kept the german states divided the strength of austria and varied aims of the nationalists also made unification unlikely.
Danish war, austro-prussian war (seven weeks war) and franco-prussian war prussian military strength see german unification responsible to it) not full. The german confederation the german confederation was the loose association of 39 states created in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate german-speaking countries, which most historians have judged to be weak and ineffective as well as an obstacle to german nationalist aspirations. Certainly the strength of the prussian military was key to the unification of germany as it was vital in winning the three wars of unification, but it shall be argued that the military were as strong as they were due to other more important actors such as economics and bismarck. By 1871, prussia had established its military and economic superiority in central europe this, combined with the decline of austrian influence, resulted in the unification of the german states.
The austro-prussian war or seven weeks' war (also known as the unification war, prussian-german war, german civil war, war of 1866, brothers war, or fraternal war, and in germany as the german war) was a war fought in 1866 between the german confederation under the leadership of the austrian empire and its german allies on one side and the. The new german empire emerged as europe's foremost military power prussia dominated this new german state the war and its aftermath created great bitterness between the two countries and sowed the seeds for the first world war. Nationalism certainly had a role to play in the unification of germany in 1871 it was, however, a rather different breed of nationalism to that seen in 1815, the 1830s and 1848, and it was more often than not manipulated by powerful diplomats (especially otto von bismarck) to their own ends the. Prussia's economic strength, her formidable military, bismarck's machiavellian leadership, austria's apparent weaknesses, german nationalism, and a general european retreat in diplomatic involvement were all causes leading to the outcome of unification.
Other factors were also of importance to the unification of germany including prussian military strength, mistakes of others including the actions of napoleon ii, attitudes of other states and the decline of austria and also the growth of german nationalism. German unification (1850-1871) summary whereas camillo di cavour directed italian unification, a junker (the prussian name for an aristocratic landowner from old prussia in the east) named otto von bismarck pushed german unification through blood and iron and skillful understanding of realpolitik.
Terminology the expression franco-prussian war (1870-1871) , widely used in english language historical literature, is incorrect, as the war was fought between france and all those german states which joined in the german unification in 1871. Herr otto von bismarcks iron-man image and the unique personality was the crucial factor in the unification of germany his skill as a diplomat was unrivalled during his reign as chancellor of prussia and germany the mastery he showed in foreign policy was such that he was able to outwit all other. The prussian war cabinet understood that its only supporters among the german states against the habsburgs were two small principalities bordering on brandenburg that had little military strength or political clout: the grand duchies of mecklenburg-schwerin and mecklenburg-strelitzthey also understood prussia's only ally abroad was italy. The diet of the german confederation demanded that this be prevented and encouraged prussia and austria, the only german states to have significant military strength, to invade denmark the war between denmark and the germany states was short and decisive and the danes were defeated in 1864.